By Sheila Hayward (auth.)
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Extra info for Biopsychology: Physiological Psychology
After a few seconds, vague shapes are discernible, and after approximately seven seconds, you are coping reasonably well. This is called dark adaptation and represents the length of time it takes for the rods to take over vision from the cones. Colours are not recognised by the rods, hence the saying 'all cats are grey in the dark'! Cones As mentioned earlier, cones are responsible for vision in bright light and provide for high visual acuity. Both rods and cones have nerve fibres that connect into a reduction system of bipolar cells and then to ganglion cells.
An investigation into the numerous theories of pain is outside the scope of this small volume. 2 43 DEMONSTRATION OF CUTANEOUS SENSATIONS 1. Shut your eyes and rub the fingers of one hand over sandpaper and the other on a very smooth surface (polished wood or shiny paper). After 30 seconds change both to a surface of intermediate roughnes (say leather or suede). Note the different sensation experienced by both hands. 2. ). After 30 seconds put both hands in tepid water. Note the different sensation experienced by both hands.
This sensitive mechanism can be damaged by loud noise, especially if it is constant, which is why Health and Safety experts insist on ear protectors for workers in noisy industries. Loudness is measured in decibels (dB); above 85 dB, prolonged exposure leads to nerve deafness. It is possible to become habituated to loud noise, but that does not prevent the physical damage, only the psychological damage. 12 outlines some commonly encountered noise levels. Detection and perception of timbre Detection of timbre, or complex sounds, is dependent on the auditory system's ability to 'undo' sounds.