By A. Allan Schmid
A suite of 4 essays and responses at the themes of: (1) Managerial determination making; (2) Investment-Disinvestment conception; (3) Agricultural coverage (domestic and international); and (4) method and valuational tactics.
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Extra resources for Beyond Agriculture and Economics: Management, Investment, Policy, and Methodology
In particular, we need to know more about how managers perceive the content and structure of formal plans and about the value of plans in control systems for operational, tactical, and strategic management activities. Finally, an issue that will be important in control system design is that of the impact of information technology on the frequency and level of detail in monitoring. The central question here is that of the level of resources that should be devoted to problem recognition. Problem Formulation Problem formulation is the process by which practical problems are structured for analysis and solution.
First, if at least some significant part of an expert's behavior can be automated by an expert system, constraints on scarce expert time and energy can be relaxed. In the immediate future, I believe the potential for expert systems to contribute significantly in this way are limited. The second reason for interest in expert systems is more immediate and, perhaps, more important. By systematically investigating the strategies and knowledge people use to solve problems, we may be able to improve our ability to analyze, evaluate, support, and teach problem solving.
This is the view of decision making that is the basis for Johnson's (1977, 25-46) general model of problem solving and for Newell and Simon's information processing theory of human problem solving. In the early 1950s, Johnson's work on knowledge situations (Johnson and Haver 1953; Johnson 1954) helped lay the foundations for an understanding of the economics of managerial learning and was the motivation for a systematic study of farmers' sources and uses of information (Johnson and Lard 1961, 41-54).