Below-ground interactions in tropical agroecosystems: by Meine van Noordwijk, Georg Cadisch, Chin K Ong

By Meine van Noordwijk, Georg Cadisch, Chin K Ong

This ebook offers a synthesis of plant-soil-plant interactions from the plot to panorama scale. It specializes in the method point, that is appropriate to many sorts of multispecies agroecosystems (agroforestry, intercropping and others). It additionally hyperlinks easy study to sensible software (and indigenous wisdom) in a variety of platforms without or with timber, and considers implications of below-ground interactions for the surroundings and worldwide swap concerns. The contents comprise root structure and dynamics, plant-soil biota interactions, soil biodiversity and meals webs, water and nutrient biking, and the mandatory linkage to modelling methods. on hand In Print

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2001). Below-ground - Chap 02 21/4/04 10:15 Page 22 22 L. Joshi et al. 1. Soil types as described by collectors of Thaumatococcus daniellii in the western region of Ghana. Twi words are given in italics. ) Twi name Broad categories Asase denden (hard soil) Asase mremre (loose soil) Specific soil types Ntetie (clay) Literal translation Asase fita White soil Asase koko Red soil Afonwea Wet soil Anwea Asase tuntum Sand Black soil Texture Comments Predominantly clay Becomes waterlogged and sticky to the touch in the wet season, hard in the dry season.

Local knowledge of nutrient heterogeneity in soils and vegetation is exploited at a range of scales. At a fine scale, people recognize and exploit fertile microsites that occur in depressions or close to trees in the Sahel (Lamers and Feil, 1995). Conversely, the Akamba people of Kenya specifically fertilize areas of low fertility in their maize fields, to bring them more in line with crop performance in the rest of the field (Kiptot, 1996). At the other end of the scale, the traditional shifting cultivation used by the Bemba in Zambia involves pollarding trees in large ‘outfield’ areas of Miombo woodland, piling the wood and then burning it on a much smaller, ash-enriched ‘infield’ (Chidumayo, 1987).

4). For example, suppose that a particular agroforestry system has an I equal to +5% in a season with good rains, but an I equal to Ϫ25% in a season with poor rains. So, with decreased water availability, the overall interaction decreased. According to Fig. 4, the net effect that trees have on water availability is probably negative (TA < 0), while the net effect trees have on another resource is probably positive (TB > 0). g. that there is a positive net effect on the availability of another resource) is most probably true.

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