By Julia Van Deusen PhD OTR/L FAOTA, Denis Brunt PT EdD
This designated reference is the 1st to mix actual treatment and occupational remedy in a single entire quantity. every one bankruptcy features a synopsis of the fabric, heritage details, pathology, an outline of the overview instruments, pattern review systems, a precis of pertinent examine, an inventory of references, and a brief word list. themes mentioned diversity from statistical idea to surgical studies to the patient's skill to be self-sufficient. this article presents the reader with a very good conceptual beginning in overview.
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Extra info for Assessment in Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy
Borg and Gall (1983) suggest that most human observations cannot be reliably rated on a continuum with more than five points. While it is a well-known fact that if you increase the observation pOints (aU other factors held constant), the amount of variance increases, which in turn increases the reliability of a scale. However, the increase in variance and , hence, reliability may be spuriously inflated and represent more TABLE I 5 EXAMPLE OF TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS FOR KITCHEN SAFElY* CognitiCJe Verbalize Obtain Prepare Clean Safety Supplies Food Up 10%/2 10%/2 15%/3 5%/1 20%/4 20%/4 10%/2 Sensorimotor Ajject;CJe 10%/2 Percentage indicates percent o f items allocated per cell, followed by actual number of items.
That is, no one study can confirm or disconfirm the presence of a construct, but a series of studies that clearly articulates the domain of the construct, how the items for a scale that purports to meas ure the construct fit together, and how the construct can be separated from other constructs begins to form the basis of the evidence needed for construct validation. To illustrate how this three-step process would work , we briefly sketch out how a construct validity study would be designed for a measure of functional independence, the FIM.
ERRORS INTRODUCED BY OBSERVERS Observer effects have an impact on the reliability and the validity of observational data. Two distinct forms of ob server effects are found: 1) the observer may fail to rate the behavior objectively (observer bias) and 2) the presence of the observer can alter the behavior of the individual being rated (observer presence). These two general effects are summarized in Table 1-2 and are discussed in the following sections. Observer Bias Observer bias occurs when characteristics of the ob server or the situation being observed influence the ratings made by the observer.