By Frans H. van Eemeren, Rob Grootendorst
This quantity provides a theoretical account of the matter of reading and comparing argumentative discourse. After putting argumentation in a communicative standpoint, after which discussing the fallacies that happen whilst sure ideas of verbal exchange are violated, the authors provide a substitute for either the linguistically-inspired descriptive and logically-inspired normative ways to argumentation.
The authors symbolize argumentation as a posh speech act in a serious dialogue geared toward resolving a distinction of opinion. some of the levels of a severe dialogue are defined, and the communicative and interactional features of the speech acts played in resolving an easy or complicated dispute are mentioned. After facing the most important facets of research and linking the assessment of argumentative discourse to the research, the authors establish the fallacies which could ensue at a variety of levels of debate. Their basic target is to explain their very own pragma- dialectical point of view at the research and assessment of argumentative discourse, bringing jointly pragmatic perception pertaining to speech acts and dialectical perception bearing on serious discussion.
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Extra resources for Argumentation, Communication, and Fallacies: A Pragma-dialectical Perspective
It may have become clear that this lack of agreement is the case, but it is also sufficient if there is a suspicion that this might be the case. 1 It is characteristic of a discussion of this type that a difference of opinion is made the issue of a dispute and that the language users who are involved in resolving this dispute attempt to do so by means of argumentation. The utterances advanced in the argumentation are reasons or, as we prefer to call them, arguments relating to a standpoint. It is their function that makes arguments and standpoints different from other utterances: Neither arguments nor standpoints are primarily characterized by their form or content.
For each of the various stages of the discussion we explain the kinds of fallacies that can occur in a critical discussion: with regard to advancing standpoints and doubt in the confrontation stage; with regard to the distribution of discussion roles and the point of departure of the discussion in the opening stage; with regard to the means of defense (involving unexpressed premises, starting points, argumentation schemes or logical argument forms) in the argumentation stage; and with regard to establishing the result of the discussion in the concluding stage.
Standpoints may express opinions concerning facts, ideas, actions, attitudes, or whatever. They can relate not only to relatively simple matters but also to matters of extreme complexity. We can take the view that Amsterdam is the dirtiest city in Europe, Baudelaire is the best French poet, dictators are always right-wing, it is bad manners to let an old lady stand when you are seated, shot-putters are usually thought heavier than they really are, but we can also adhere to the standpoint that altruism is cunningly disguised egoism, the teaching of grammar has a beneficial effect on the way schoolchildren use language, behaviorism is an outdated psychological theory, or that quantum theory is confirmed by relativity theory.