Aquatic chemistry : chemical equilibria and rates in natural by Werner Stumm

By Werner Stumm

"Like the former versions, this considerably revised and up-to-date 3rd version has been written to supply readers with an effective knowing of the final chemical ideas underlying average water chemistry: chemical thermodynamics and kinetics, acids and bases, dissolved carbon dioxide, atmosphere-water interactions, steel ions in aqueous ideas, precipitation and dissolution, oxidation and reduction, Read more...


it is a entire advent to the thoughts, purposes and methods of aquatic chemistry. it's been revised and up to date to concentration upon toxins and its regulate, in addition to the processes Read more...

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Example text

For aqueous solution species, we will use the molal scale for most solutes, with an infinite dilution reference state and a unit molality standard state (of unit activity). For the case of nonpolar organic solutes, the pure liquid reference and standard states are used. Gaseous species will be described on the partial pressure (atm — bar) scale. Solids will be described using the mole fraction scale. Pure solids (and pure liquids) have JC, = 1, and hence \x{ — /x°. 6. CHEMICAL POTENTIALS OF AQUEOUS ELECTROLYTES Aqueous electrolyte chemical potentials are described on the molal scale.

The fundamental thermodynamic equation for the solution may be written dE = TdS - pdV + E ta dn{ (37) Comparing equation 37 with 22, we note E >tx,

The contributions to the chemical potentials are: lit = iif + RT In (/n(-/m0) 4- RT\n 7, chemical standard free energy potential free energy potential potential of mixing Gas Phase At lower pressures (say, less than 50 atm), the partial pressure can be used to calculate the chemical potential of a gaseous species in a mixture. (T). Where high pressures are involved, the fugacity is used instead of the partial pressure. , T). , equation 53), /*, = /x,° 4- RT In JC, 7,, with, for example, 7, -» 1 as xt■, -* 1 as a possible reference state.

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