By Ph.D. Agarwal;Ms Srinivas Kamini A. Rao;Ashok
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Extra resources for Andrology Laboratory Manual
Zona pellucida is an acellular glycoprotein coat (15 µm thick) secreted by the oocyte into the perivitelline space. It is made up of three glycoproteins- ZP3, ZP2 and ZP1. Chains of ZP2 and ZP3 are linked by ZP1. ZP2 acts as primary receptor and ZP3 acts as a secondary receptor for spermatozoa. Once the ZP3 receptor (lectin) of the sperm binds to ZP3, a further increase in intracellular calcium takes place. The acrosin has trypsin like activity which softens the zona pellucida glycoproteins. Vigorous motility of acrosome reacted sperm and digestive activity of acrosin together may help the spermatozoa in piercing the zona to enter the perivitelline space.
IVF attempts to imitate fertilization outside of the human body, by placing sperm in the vicinity of the oocyte and allowing fertilization to proceed with the help of various reagents. ICSI, on the other hand, involves mechanical breeching of the oocyte and injection of a single spermatozoan into the egg cytoplasm. In conjunction with ICSI, the development of testicular sperm extraction (TESE) allows patients with idiopathic azoospermia or retrograde ejaculation to induce pregnancy. Moreover, when motile sperm are obtained from testicular tissue, they are functionally comparable to ejaculated spermatozoa.
Further development in the understanding of gamete maturation and fertilization still needs to be elucidated. In order to optimize the outcomes of ART, all aspects of natural reproduction must be understood, including fertilization, gamete maturation and embryonic development. INTRODUCTION The combination of the haploid chromatin content from the maternal and paternal gamete is the most essential event in human reproduction. However, completely understanding fertilization is perhaps one of the most difficult things to accomplish.