By Rod Phillips
Even if as wine, beer, or spirits, alcohol has had a continuing and infrequently debatable position in social lifestyles. In his leading edge publication at the attitudes towards and intake of alcohol, Rod Phillips surveys a 9,000-year cultural and monetary historical past, uncovering the tensions among alcoholic beverages as fit staples of day-by-day diets and as gadgets of social, political, and non secular anxiousness. within the city facilities of Europe and the United States, the place it was once obvious as more fit than untreated water, alcohol received a foothold because the drink of selection, however it has been extra regulated via governmental and spiritual professionals greater than the other commodity. As a possible resource of social disruption, alcohol created unstable obstacles of applicable and unacceptable intake and broke via obstacles of sophistication, race, and gender.
Phillips follows the ever-changing cultural meanings of those powerful potables and makes the stunning argument that a few societies have entered "post-alcohol" levels. His is the 1st e-book to ascertain and clarify the meanings and results of alcohol in such intensity, from worldwide and long term perspectives.
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Extra resources for Alcohol: A History
The transfer of winemaking knowledge and technology seems fairly linear, as it moved from western Asia to the eastern Mediterranean and Egypt, and from there to Crete, Greece, and southern Italy, before reaching the rest of Europe about 2,000 years ago. Winemaking knowledge seems to have reached the Etruscans of northern Italy by a different route, as they were producing wine at the same time as the Greeks, and it is possible that the Phoenicians transferred the same knowledge directly to Spain.
THE ENEMIES OF ALCOHOL, 1830–1914 Temperance and Prohibition 11. ALCOHOL AND NATIVE PEOPLES, 1800–1930 Race, Order, and Control 12. THE FIRST WORLD WAR, 1914–1920 The Battles against Alcohol 13. PROHIBITIONS, 1910–1935 Noble Experiments, Ignoble Failures 14. AFTER PROHIBITIONS, 1930–1945 Normalizing Alcohol 15. ALCOHOL IN THE MODERN WORLD Trends in Regulation and Consumption Conclusion Notes Select Bibliography Index Alcohol Introduction Ever since humans began to consume alcohol, they have had a difficult relationship with it.
It was probably tasty, even though it was not filtered, and would have been cloudy, with bits of husk and stalks floating on its surface. But ancient alcohol producers and consumers were no purists. Not only did they co-ferment various fruits, berries, cereals, and honey, but when they did make straight beer, they regularly flavored it with coriander, juniper, and other additives. In Egypt, beer was made from barley, although wheat, millet, and rye were occasionally used. 21 Beer, then, was a smart drink from almost every perspective—health, nutrition, hydration, and pleasure—and it soon became the universal drink, despite the common belief that the masses drank only beer and the elites drank only wine.