By Professor John Bond, Dr Sheila Peace, Freya Dittmann-Kohli, Gerben Westerhof
The 3rd version of this renowned and widely-used textual content presents a finished advent to the examine of getting older, exploring the most important behavioral and social technological know-how theories, recommendations, and techniques. This re-creation of growing old in Society has been broadly rewritten and displays new developments in eu gerontology, incorporating contemporary advancements in idea and study from overseas and interdisciplinary views.
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Additional info for Ageing in Society, 3rd Edition
Furthermore, the regulation of these genes may, at least in some organisms, be influenced by metabolic factors, such as responding to levels of nutrition. g. exercise), environment and chance. The recognition of this interplay of factors is likely to be crucial for integrating biological, clinical and social gerontology. For example, environment is often defined by social factors such as housing, transport and income. Poor environments may adversely affect an individual’s opportunities to do the optimal things for healthy ageing in terms of nutrition, lifestyle, etc.
First, the continuing increases in life expectancy (Oeppen and Vaupel, 2002) show that – contrary to all predictions – life expectancy has not settled at some ceiling imposed by genetic programming. Second, new biological understanding of the basic mechanisms of ageing reveal that the process is intrinsically more malleable than most of us have yet appreciated (Kirkwood, 2005). In this chapter we make a brief survey of some of the key features of the biology of ageing, looking at why and how we age, at the blend between genetic and nongenetic factors influencing longevity, and at the relationship between normal ageing and disease.
It should also be noted that compression of morbidity and rectangularisation of the survival curve are not the same thing at all. If individuals continue to die at variable ages, due to a variety of innate and acquired characteristics, the survival curve will not become any more rectangular, even if for each individual morbidity is compressed into ever shorter periods. As for compression of morbidity, the idea that diseases can be further postponed within a fixed biological lifespan is increasingly less plausible, now that we know that ageing itself is almost certainly not programmed and at a time when we are seeing continuing increase in life expectancy driven primarily by the increased health, vitality and longevity of older people.