Access to Education: New Possibilities by Alfred Sauvy (auth.)

By Alfred Sauvy (auth.)

It is hard for us at the present time to visualize that equivalent academic chance, with which we're so deeply preoccupied, was once at one time thought of to be if no longer an evil at the very least a futile target, and that those that held such an opinion have been thoroughly insincere or even disinterested. For a vertically stratified society equality of schooling needed to be adverse be­ reason it'll disturb an equilibrium as very important as that of a development. within the center a while purely the Church used to be in a position to search for new participants on the backside of the social ladder, considering the fact that ecclesiastical workplace was once no longer inherited by means of start. yet efforts during this path have been inevitably very restricted, whether purely end result of the fabric hindrances to such an goal. Equality of schooling, in addition to the other kind of equality couldn't also be imagined via the aristocracy whose very lifestyles could were threatened. Its preliminary indifference used to be by means of lively competition. while it turned attainable to formulate the query of the diffusion of schooling, within the seventeenth and 18th centuries, the primary itself met with a basic objection. The ruling category, idle by way of its very nature, feared that the staff and particularly these at the land may abandon their efficient labours, now felt to be degrading, and swell the ranks of the parasites within the cities.

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Access to Education: New Possibilities

It really is tough for us this day to visualize that equivalent academic chance, with which we're so deeply preoccupied, used to be at one time thought of to be if no longer an evil not less than a futile goal, and that those that held such an opinion have been thoroughly insincere or even disinterested. For a vertically stratified society equality of schooling needed to be adverse be­ reason it'll disturb an equilibrium as important as that of a construction.

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In 1960 for example first priority was given to those who had worked in a factory or on a farm for at least two years, and who were recommended by their managers. 22 Later, various facilities were introduced to benefit young people exempted from military service, so that the selective power of the university commissions was balanced and corrected by a network of privileges allocated to different categories of candidate. All these measures were made indispensable by the transformation of the secondary school and above all by its expansion to cover the whole population.

9 - 80 had decided to go on to higher education and this although they were already theoretically trained for a job. - 12 wanted to study whilst in employment. In fact, in spite of the efforts made to apply the reform strictly, only 32% of secondary school students went to work directly on tractors and machines. The trends were the same at Sverdlovsk in the Ukraine or in the Baltic Republics 28 except that the percentages of young people wishing to continue their studies were even higher. We have seen that a very large percentage of young people (whatever their origin) wish to continue their studies.

23 Cf. N. T. Dodge, Women in the soviet economy. Baltimore 1966 pp. 114-115. N. S. " Ucitel skaja gazeta, 21 September 1958. 22 23 The Socialist Countries (1945-1970) Reforms The reforms carried out by Kruschev in 1958 had three main aims: - to improve social efficiency and even to absorb a number of the unemployed; - to calm the impatience of young people who saw the doors of Uillversities closed in their faces; - to transform Soviet schools into truly socialist schools. The most striking aspect of these reforms was that the preparation of young people for industrial and agricultural tasks was stated to be the essential purpose of this new style of secondary education.

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