A short course in soil-structure engineering of deep by Menzies, Bruce Keith; Ng, C. W. W.; Simons, N. E

By Menzies, Bruce Keith; Ng, C. W. W.; Simons, N. E

CD comprises scholar versions of the OASYS software program programs 'FREW' and 'Safe'.


specializes in the 3 significant geotechnical demanding situations of static soil-structure interplay difficulties: Deep foundations - piles, barrettes, Multi-propped deep excavations, and Bored and open face tunnels Read more...

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2), which was once a massive magma chamber deep in the crust and has now been exposed at the ground surface through millions of years of erosion. Here can be seen examples of large crystals of feldspar, for instance, in the granite, which has come about through slow cooling. Rapid cooling occurs, for example, when the magma comes out of a volcano as lava and flows onto the ground surface where it is cooled very rapidly forming finer crystals. In the rapidly cooled material of lava, it is not possible to see the different individual crystals with the naked eye, or even with the aid of a hand lens.

On the other hand, hydrolysis results in a solid residue being left behind, usually in the form of clay minerals. This very large family of silicate minerals are all hydrated, having an OH component derived from water in their chemical formula, and often water itself, H2 O. The clay minerals comprise sheets which are often weakly bound together. In some cases the interlayer bonding is so weak that water can enter causing the mineral grains to swell. This is why some clay soils swell and shrink in response to changes in moisture content and may be responsible for damage to structures if this behaviour is not factored into the foundation design.

For example, andesite has a lot of plagioclase, some amphibole and biotite. Rhyolite and granite, for example, have a lot of orthoclase, quartz, and some plagioclase, biotite and muscovite. At the other end of the spectrum, basalt has some calcium-rich plagioclase and amphibole, pyroxene and a little olivine. The Troodos Mountains in Cyprus are ultrabasic rocks containing a lot of olivine. They are formed by a sliver of mantle material that has been brought up to the ground surface, and is probably unique.

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